Simple meaning of Span of Management is how many people are direc … tly reporting to one manager. If in the manager is required to do a face to face communication with each subordinate, then more time will be consumed. Vertical dimension This is the number of levels that are in directly managed. Span of management is the limitation of the number of subordinates who can be effectively supervised by a manager in the discharge of his or her management duties. For most effective operations, it is necessary to have the optimum number of subordinates to supervise.
Depending on the type of supervision, a span of 3-8 subordinates for managers at higher levels was considered adequate, while first level supervisors, i. Two dimensions The Span of Control always involves two dimensions: Horizontal dimension This is the number of direct subordinates a manager actually supervises. Strict control leads to low morale and job satisfaction. But in case of centralisation of authority subordinates would require considerable consultation, clarification and instruction from their superior. Organizations need to determine the desired culture when designing their span of control. Managers may begin to fall behind on deadlines or become unable to properly manage their employees because there is not enough time for each task.
Flat Structures : These structures have a wide span of control. A small span of control creates a steeper organisational structure, which requires more managers and which will consequently be more expensive for the organisation. Thus it indicates number of subordinates who report directly to the manager. Ironically, little systematic research existed on many of the principles of management at the time Simon leveled his critique. Graicunas, introduced a theory on span of management which explains three kinds of relationships that a superior can have with subordinates.
You will be held accountable for your decisions in this regard — choose wisely. The desired range of span of control is 3 to 7 personnel, with 5 being optimal. The current shift to self-directed and other forms of non-hierarchical structures, have made the concept of span of control less important. Many managers in an organization have no direct reports. Wider spans of management lead to flat organization, whereas, narrow spans of management result in tall organizational structure.
Hence manager can have wider span. Since management represents the activities that do not directly result in productivity, they are rather a overhead, span of control determines the additional operational cost. The number of people each manager can effectively supervise and still complete this other work in a timely manner depends on many factors. Then, the number of relationships of direct single type the supervisor could possibly engage into is n. There is effective communication as the number of levels is less.
Long-term experienced employees usually do not need much management. The table below demonstrates the relationship between the span of control, hierarchy and total number of employees size. Thus, higher the degree of decentralization, the wider is the span of management. A Granuas,a French management consultant developed a mathematical concept of superior-subordinate relationships. Without a good leader, downward communication can be impaired. It is well developed concept of classical organization theory. Use of Staff Assistance 8.
For instance, executives often have fewer direct reports than other managers in the organization. Increasing Span of Control When a manager supervises a large number of employees, he often has little time to align activities and monitor the quality of how activities are executed. They spend their most of time in planning and other functions. A narrow span-of-control increases organizational levels making ithard for top level management to keep in touch with issues at theoperational level. Less supervision and control can create a more positive attitude among employees, who appreciate the extra trust and freedom. This is also known as narrow span of control.
This means a superior can manage a large number of subordinates as he will be required just to give the broad guidelines and devote less time on each. So the nature of the work being performed, and how much attention it requires should govern the assignment of personnel to a manager, and not some industry ideal goal. There is extensive delegation, clarity of jobs, authority-responsibility relationships and freedom to take decisions. Span of control can, therefore, be wide. Fourthly, narrow span also adversely affects employee morale. The span of control can, thus, be wide. It is therefore very important for Span of Control and scope of control to be in harmony with each other.
The flat structure also reduces cost, as it requires less number of executives. In the 19th and middle of 20th century, management writers determined 5 or 6 as the optimum number that a manager could effectively manage at the upper level. In such a case, the span may be larger because a superior will be required to devote less time in managing them. These factors are situational in nature and the span of management is also, thus, situational. It promotes innovative abilities of the top management. . The Working staff of the Manager: If the manager has a supporting staff that is equally skilled in handling situations, then it would be possible to manage a wider span of control because the responsibilities of supervision would be shared.
Hence, employees may be less enthusiastic in their jobs. Geographical Closeness of Employees: The closer the subordinates are to each other in a physical location, the easier it will be for the manager to manage more employees. Under certain conditions, up to 10 personnel may be assigned to one team under a single supervisor. Why organizations strive for growth? Many levels of management, high cost of management staff. Later on, this statement was diversified, and 1951 divided managerial work into two categories, one requiring the attention to physical work, the other one requiring mental activity. In addition, the communicative skill, decision making, leadership ability, and controlling power are important determinants of supervisory ability. Assigned tasks Initially, it is about assigning tasks, authority and responsibilities.