The ruling class mosca. Gaetano Mosca 2018-12-29

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The Ruling Class by Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

In actual fact, though examinations and competitions may theoretically be open to all, the majority never have the resources for meeting the expense of long preparation, and many others are without the connections and kinships that set an individual promptly on the right road, enabling him to avoid the gropings and blunders that are inevitable when one enters an unfamiliar environment without any guidance or support. Combatting the communistic theories of Plato, the Stagirite declares that private property is indispensable if the individual is expected to produce and therefore provide for his {p. The selective process that goes on in the higher social classes, whereby their average intelligence becomes higher and stays higher than that of the lower classes, has been the subject of careful investigation by Ammon. The descendants of rulers, therefore, ought to become better and better fitted to rule, and the other classes ought to see their chances of challenging or supplanting them become more and more remote. Ariaeus refused, on the ground that he was not noble enough, that the Persian grandees would never accept him as king. Yet aristocracies that cannot defend themselves adequately from idleness decline rapidly.

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Mosca's Machiavellian theory of the Ruling Class

the ruling class mosca

The basic characteristics of this theory are that power is concentrated, the elites are unified, the non-elites are diverse and powerless, elites' interests are unified due to common backgrounds and positions and the defining characteristic of power is institutional position. Idleness generates softness and sensuality, stimulates frivolousness of mind and creates an aspiration to a life of pleasures unaccompanied by duties. This was due to the fact that Chinese civilization was based on a nonreligious, positive morality, to the great unity of culture that the Chinese peoples achieved over many centuries of common history and, finally, to the democratic system of recruiting officials, who were appointed and promoted by competitive examination. The Mohammedan Aryans of Persia and Hindustan certainly have closer moral afflnities with the Arabs and Turks than with their European kinsmen; and Jews long settled in western Europe certainly feel spiritually closer to the nations among whom they live than to the Arabs, who are blood relatives but who have adopted Oriental civilization. Before proclaiming their exclusive and hereditary right to power the families or castes in question must have held the scepter of command in a firm grasp, completely monopolizing all the political forces of that country at that period. We find analogous arrangements in republican Rome, down to the period of the Punic Wars and even as late as the day of Mariusin Latin and Germanic Europe during the Middle Ages; in Russia, as just explained, and among many other peoples.

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Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

On Earth you always fulfilled God's designs, help me now to do the holy will of God. In spite of these good points, the strength of the Chinese state was almost never proportionate to its size, and the inferiority of its political machine became promptly manifest once it came into contact with modern European states. If all individuals could participate in the scramble on an equal footing, struggle would be intensified to the point of frenzy. Nor can we believe that if communism were to triumph in other parts of Europe it would be possible to avoid a similar experiment, which would inevitably yield the same results, and perhaps worse ones. In general, the great are more given to flaunting a blatant luxury in barbarous countries, or in countries that have recently grown rich, and something of the sort happens with individuals in ruling classes. On the same basis, the regime in Italy, a monarchy, is much more similar to the regime in France, a republic, than it is to the regime in England, also a monarchy; and there are important differences between the political organizations of the United States and France, though both countries are republics. It may be regarded as virtually normal in societies that are in the initial stages of their development; and the individuals who show the greatest ability in war easily gain supremacy over their fellows - the bravest become chiefs.

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The myth of the ruling class: Gaetano Mosca and the : with the first ...

the ruling class mosca

Conspicuous examples of that situation would be ancient Egypt during certain periods , Brahman India and medieval Europe. The government itself sometimes sold the various academic degrees and allowed ignorant persons, often from the lowest social strata, to hold public office. January 2018 In and , elite theory is a theory of the that seeks to describe and explain power relationships in contemporary society. Almost all social and political relations in the Mussulman world were regulated by a religious code, in other words by the Koran. When, for instance, a glacial calm prevails, when we can feel no breath of political discussion blowing, when everybody is raising hymns of praise to some great restorer of order and peace, then we may rest assured that the autocratic principle is prevailing too strongly over the liberal, and vice versa when everybody is cursing tyrants and championing liberty.


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Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

Mosca's thesis re: the existence of a minority 'ruling class' in human societies is well-developed and surely correct. In the United States, too, it seems, Indian tribes that have been able to turn to agriculture show no tendencies toward dying out. He asserts, much like Hunter, that an elite class that owns and manages large income-producing properties like banks and corporations dominate the American power structure politically and economically. What we see is that as soon as there is a shift in the balance of political forces - when, that is, a need is felt that capacities different from the old should assert themselves in the management of the state, when the old capacities, therefore, lose some of their importance or changes in their distribution occur - then the manner in which the ruling class is constituted changes also. After he was murdered, seven Persian noblemen occupied the throne in turn. But having deeper roots than religion in the souls of the modern nations today, patriotism has offered sturdier resistance to the attacks of its adversaries. It will simply present itself in a graver form.

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The Ruling Class

the ruling class mosca

It would be untrue and unfair to maintain that a disinterested passion for knowledge is not to be found in individuals belonging to the lower strata of society. Unfortunately, one of the major weaknesses of present-day European society - another of the seeds of dissolution in the modern representative system - lies in a relaxation of those forces of moral cohesion which alone are capable of uniting in a consensus of sentiments and ideas all the atoms that make up a people, and which, therefore, constitute the cement without which any political edifice totters and collapses. The rich invariably have a considerably shorter road to travel than the poor, to say nothing of the fact that the stretch of road that the rich are spared is often the roughest and most difficult. The aborigines of Australia are fast disappearing. A member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies beginning in 1908, he served as undersecretary of state for the colonies from 1914 to 1916 and was made a senator for life by King in 1919. And how else could one understand the present, not to speak of future hopes, if not in terms of centuries! Rarely in history do we find eamples of hereditary upper classes that have been conscious, as they should properly be, of their intellectual and moral superiorities, and yet have been spontaneously and equally conscious of the obligations toward the lower classes which those superiorities lay upon them. Many of these ideas were adapted by and in their theories of the.

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Il Regno: Ponderable Quote From Ruling by Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

If European civilization has been able to create a type of political organization that is profoundly different from that of the Near Eastern empire, the fact is due in very large part to the intellectual legacy left by Greece and Rome. The much despised Egyptian fellah, unused for long centuries to war and accustomed to remaining meek and helpless under the lash of the oppressor, became a good soldier when Mehemet Ali placed him in Turkish or Albanian regiments. That was the characteristic illusion in France around 1789. The phenomenon is most striking in the various religious orders. It might be objected that we owe great discoveries in the scientific field, and great pronouncements in morals, to men who {p. Confidence in the reasonableness and goodness of the human being, and in the ability of the schoolmaster eventually to educate the masses, remained unshaken.

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The myth of the ruling class: Gaetano Mosca and the : with the first ...

the ruling class mosca

The truth is that social position, family tradition, the habits of the class in which we live, contribute more than is commonly supposed to the greater or lesser development of the qualities mentioned. Sheltered by the organization of which they were a part from the greed and the violence of those who, in every age and in every society, are eager to get the best positions for themselves, such privileged individuals were enabled to devote their time to observing man and the world he lives in, and to elaborating the first rudiments of a morality for the family and for social groups. They have a tendency, that is, to remain at the point and in the state in which they find themselves. They were exempt from agricultural duties, yet they received their share of the produce of the soil, along with the other members of the community. If the ruling class really belonged to a different race, or if the qualities that fit it for dominion were transmitted primarily by organic heredity, it is difficult to see how, once the class was formed, it could decline and lose its power. In fact, we would only be reviving that doctrine, though on the basis of the more exact and profound knowledge that our times have attained as to the natural laws that influence and control the political organization of society. As a rule the dominance of a warrior class over a peaceful multitude is attributed to a superposition of races, to the conquest of a relatively unwarlike group by an aggressive one.

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The Ruling Class by Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

In societies of advanced civilization, war is the exceptional condition. It may have no other motive than a disinterested passion for widening to some extent the confines of the known at the expense of the unknown. The bourgeois mid itself was {p. At any rate, if a society ha shad no revolutions and undergone no serious political changes for some centuries, when it begins at last to emrge from its long torpor it is much more easily persuaded that the triumph of a new doctrine, the establishment of a new form of government, will mark the beginning of a new era, a new golden age, and that on its advent all men will become good and happy in a new land of Cathay. It can only turn out that the man who acts, and knows how to act, will eventually succeed in commanding.

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The myth of the ruling class : Gaetano Mosca and the : with the first English translation of the final version of The theory of the ruling class, foreword 1962 (Book, 1980) [busanlottedfs.com]

the ruling class mosca

It is true, of course, that a man fallen from high estate often acquires powers of resignation, self-denial and resourcefulness, just as one who rises in the world sometimes gains in sentiments of justice and fairness. The consequence of that aspiration has been, and perhaps still is, that good souls go looking for a political system that will make the concept a reality, or at least point the way to doing so. Some generations later, in 1537, the nobility forced all tradesmen in the cities to sell such real estate as they owned, and landed property became a prerogative of nobles only. Susie is a first-year college student. Quite to the contrary, we judge that peoples are able to renew their composition by procreation, a thing that individuals cannot do, and that therefore they may look forward to a literal immortality.

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