Archiving can, and should, be done by all — not just the largest data collection consortia. However, in studying history, they are also limited by the sources available. · Why do you think the author wrote it? The time period during which secondary data was first compiled may have a substantial effect upon the nature of the data. Before making use of secondary data there is need to evaluate both the data itself and its source. In most of the cases data no more than 5 years can be used in the research. One is that almost all such writing is copyrighted. External sources of secondary information The marketing researcher who seriously seeks after useful secondary data is more often surprised by its abundance than by its scarcity.
The other category of secondary sources is popular history. Primary Sources are directly taken from an individual or group of individuals, while secondary sources take information from an individual or group and analyzes the topic. However, this is not the case when it comes to data collected by others. Scott identifies four criteria: 1 Authenticity — there are two aspects of authenticity soundness and authorship. How to Read a Primary Source To read primary sources effectively requires you to use your historical imagination along with your research skills. Out-of-date information may offer little value especially for companies competing in fast changing markets. Evaluation of Secondary Data Because of the above mentioned disadvantages of secondary data, we will lead to evaluation of secondary data.
Unfortunately, the marketer may be disappointed to discover that the way the research divides age groups e. Typically useful information would be that relating to sales, finance, production, storage and transportation. For suggestions about evaluating secondary sources on the Internet, see the next section of this project,. The author may wish to describe a particular event so other people will learn from it, to justify his or someone else's actions, to preserve the memory of a person or event or to entertain his reader or for payment. Secondary sources involve generalization, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation of the original information. Similarly, and with equal frequency, commercial organisations have been known to inflate estimates of their market shares. Examples of primary resources include scholarly research articles, books, and diaries.
For many of your papers, use of primary resources will be a requirement. Internal sources of secondary information Sales data : All organisations collect information in the course of their everyday operations. Because newspapers were a main source of information about current events and political topics, people would rely on this information, in part, to make decisions about key issues. Primary sources are often written at the time an important event is taking place and are subjective charged with emotion. The main sources of external secondary sources are 1 government federal, state and local 2 trade associations 3 commercial services 4 national and international institutions. The commercial organisation funds the collection of the data, which is wide ranging in its content, and hopes to make its money from selling this data to interested parties.
Scott says a sound document is one which is complete and reliable ensuring all the pages are there, no misprints and if it is a copy of an original it should be a reliable copy without errors. For instance, the significant increase in the price obtained for Ugandan coffee in the mid-90's could be interpreted as evidence of the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programme that set out to restore coffee estates which had fallen into a state of disrepair. Then take all of this information to your course instructor to see if the materials will be acceptable. People who write secondary sources have access to more information about the historical event and have time to analyse the evidence more carefully. Secondary data is cheaper and quicker to collect than primary data and can be more accurate. Most books in the history section of a library and the articles in history journals are secondary sources.
They are more often quantitative, although. What types of primary sources are available? Photographs, video, or audio that capture an event. However, as with all texts documenting the historical record, newspapers must be analyzed critically to create the clearest picture of the time period. But the whole process of research involves ethical considerations, whether or not any primary data collection is involved. Many of the newspaper articles about the 1912 woman suffrage campaign also include the names of participants, events, leaders, organizations involved, and how they worked together to achieve their goal of gaining woman suffrage in Oregon. What major differences appear in them? In addition to the overall agenda of the newspapers, historians need to consider the intended audience.
Clarification of Research Question The use of secondary research may help the researcher to clarify the research question. A secondary source interprets and analyzes a primary source. Analysis or interpretation of data. Most research papers are based on secondary sources as they build on the research or studies others have done. Secondary data can be extremely useful both in defining the population and in structuring the sample to be taken.
Introduction: the difference between primary and secondary sources Historians need sources to give them information about the past. It is important for the researcher to identify, reduce, and manage the disadvantages that are accompanied by the use of secondary research. Secondary sources are sources that are written about primary sources. Some secondary sources like personal records can be highly biased and they may be not. As Lindsay has pointed out, pulling out a primary source in front of a classroom of students whether they be at primary, secondary or post-secondary levels can often fall short of stimulating the kind of critical and historical thinking these kinds of sources are capable of facilitating. Therefore, the detailed difficulties may persuade the researcher to decide that the potential information obtained is not worth the potential difficulties in conducting the research.