It is important to consider that the cue is always present in the treatment conditions comprising the cue manipulation, but differs in its anticipated persuasiveness e. As an alternative to this misery, John can change his beliefs or attitudes. The commercial also provides laboratory findings from three independent studies that support the commercial's claims about the shoes. We need to understand both of these processes of persuasion because both of them occur in receivers. Highly motivated subjects were expected to expend the cognitive effort necessary to evaluate the message claims, while subjects uninvolved during message processing were not expected to devote much attention to the claims.
These two forms of message processing are discussed below. In one study, Petty et al. Persuasion is the process of changing our attitude toward something based on some kind of communication. They complain that they never have any money and that they cannot buy anything new. This paper discusses a number of conceptual and methodological issues relevant to future research in this area, with particular emphasis on the role played by peripheral cues.
During boot camp he is awakened at 5:00 a. A test of the above concerns would require a 2x2 factorial design. It should be obvious that these are important outcomes: Surely in most cases, persuaders would very much want to know how to make attitude change last longer, have a greater influence on behavior, and be more resistant to change. Justification of effort has a distinct effect on a person liking a group. The classification of a cognitive response as representing central versus peripheral processing will not be an easy task. Factors include the attractiveness of the source or background cues such as music that change the attitude of the speaker.
Holbrook, Ann Arbor Association for Consumer Research, 420-425. This ad could employ a peripheral cue as the basis for creating product preference. If gullible people are not there, there will be no one to persuade and if there is no person who has persuasive characteristics, then nobody will be able to persuade others. Research on advertisement attitudes has focused primarily on the unique influence of attitude toward the ad on affective product attitude beyond that exerted by cognitive product attitude. Just the opposite pattern should occur under high involvement settings. On the other hand, if the listener is distracted or has trouble understanding the message, he or she will lack the ability to do central processing.
Fantasia believes that people with blue eyes are somehow more creative than other people. Arguments that occur first, such as in a debate, are more influential if messages are given back-to-back. They are known as the two routes of persuasion. Their perception of things and issues are firm and cannot be changed easily. A causal model could then be constructed in which favorable and unfavorable cognitive responses would act as determinants of these central and peripheral cue evaluations, which in turn serve as antecedents of product attitude see Figure 1.
This was not the case, however, as low involvement subjects were affected by both manipulations. It may well be that preferences formed during low involvement by peripheral message cues are completely over-ridden by preferences formed when processing product information during high involvement i. Future research might explore this prediction by manipulating not only central and peripheral advertising elements, but also whether the advertised brand is new versus a brand toward which subjects possess a pre-existing attitude. Consequently, highly involved subjects may first travel the peripheral route but then proceed to a careful consideration of the message claims. The theory is applied in the advertisement, marketing, media, and psychology. The replacement of product attitude with attitude toward the ad in Figure l would allow an examination of central and peripheral cues' influence on ad attitude. The present evidence suggests that a manipulation of some peripheral cue e.
In contrast, attitudes toward the source should be more polarized under low involvement conditions. Marco telecommutes from home and Maria does not work outside of the home. Thus, speakers who are credible, or have expertise on the topic, and who are deemed as trustworthy are more persuasive than less credible speakers. The Effect of Initiation The military example demonstrates the observation that a difficult initiation into a group influences us to like the group more, due to the justification of effort. External forces of persuasion include advertising; the features of advertising that influence our behaviors include the source, message, and audience. We can reduce cognitive dissonance by bringing our cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors in line—that is, making them harmonious. The peripheral route also occurs when a listener is persuaded because he or she notices that a message has many arguments -- but lacks the ability or motivation to think about them individually.
For example, say that you are buying the latest model smartphone, and the salesperson suggests you purchase the best data plan. Bolken Not surprisingly, John is miserable. I am learning discipline and how to defend myself and my country. Peripheral cues in the form of illustrations seem likely to dominate central cues during the initial stage of processing. . For example, one could measure subjects' attitudes toward the message arguments and source. No one likes to be miserable.
The process of thinking for a longer duration is known as elaboration. Cognitive dissonance is aroused by inconsistent beliefs and behaviors. When asked why they do not move to a less expensive location, since Marco telecommutes, they respond that Fairfield County is beautiful, they love the beaches, and they feel comfortable there. Participants who underwent a difficult initiation process to join the group rated the group more favorably than did participants with an easy initiation or no initiation. In addition, the students were also asked to evaluate various aspects of the course. Support for our hypothesis would require a significant interaction between these two factors. Attitude change occurs even when the intention of message sending is not to change the attitude of the recipient.