The classic example is the Canadian Shield. This pattern may be found around maturely dissected domes which have alternating belts of strong and weak rock encircling them. The Chambal, Sind, Ken, Betwa, Tons and Son meet the Yamuna and the Ganga at right angles. At a regional level the Rohtas plateau of S. Barbed Drainage Pattern : Barbed drainage pattern, a rare kind of drainage pattern, is formed when the tributaries flow in opposite direction to their master streams. The streams emerge at the central point of the aforesaid reliefs and drain down the slopes in all directions.
This results from a partial adaptation to an underground circular structure; a dome like igneous intrusion batholith. Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. The stream pattern is thus superposed on, or placed on structural features that were previously buried. The picture presented by the drainage system is very confusing, since there are numerous water courses, lakes and swamps, some interconnected, and some in local drainage basins of their own. Trellised drainage patterns are generally formed in the regions of cuesta topography where hard beds become escarpments and soft beds are eroded to become valleys or lowlands. Seasonal; dependent on monsoon rainfall.
Radial Drainage Pattern : Radial drainage pattern, also known as centrifugal pattern, is formed by the streams which diverge from a central higher point in all directions. Streams are ranked hierarchically: headwater streams with no tributaries belong to the first, and lowest, order; two first-order streams unite to form a second-order stream; two second-order streams form a third-order stream, and so on. Rectangular drainage patterns are rare in Canada. First of all the master or trunk consequent stream develops on gently sloping topographic surface. The rills may develop further into gullies and stream courses. These tributary streams are called as lateral consequent streams. The classic example is the.
Example — Nilgiri hills found in Tamilnadu and Kerela has annular drainage pattern. A parallel pattern also develops in regions of parallel, elongate landforms like outcropping resistant rock bands. Parallel drainage pattern Parallel drainage pattern A parallel drainage system is a pattern of rivers caused by steep slopes with some relief. Rivers like Narmada, Son and Mahanadi originating from Amarkantak Hills flow in different directions and are good examples of radial pattern. For example, the rivers originating from the Amarkantak. A sub-type of rectangular drainage is the angulated pattern. Eventually the system will stabilize.
Rectangular Drainage: The drainage pattern marked by right-angled bends and right-angled junctions between tributaries and the main stream is known as rectangular drainage. The master consequent gradually but slowly lengthens its longitudinal course through headward erosion. The classic example is the Canadian Shield. As the river flows along a strike valley, smaller tributaries feed into it from the steep slopes on the sides of mountains. Slope and permeability of rocks very effectively control the number and extension of streams of dendritic drainage pattern. Dendritic patterns, which are by far the most common, develop in areas where the rock or unconsolidated material beneath the stream has no particular fabric or structure and can be eroded equally easily in all directions. In a dendritic system, there are many contributing streams analogous to the twigs of a tree , which are then joined together into the of the main river the branches and the trunk of the tree, respectively.
The depression formed at the top of Raigarh Dome in the Lower Chambal Basin has given birth to centripetal drainage pattern. Parallel Drainage Pattern : Parallel drainage pattern comprises numerous rivers which are parallel to each other and follow the regional slope. This uncoordinated pattern is characteristic of a region that has been recently vacated by an ice-sheet. Annular Pattern: In this drainage pattern, the subsequent streams follow curving or arcuate courses prior to joining the consequent stream. Nature, structure and type of rocks. Barbed Pattern: A pattern of drainage in which theconference of a tributary with the main river is characterised by a discordant junction-as if the tributary intends to flow upstream and not downstream. The melting of the glaciers left land with many irregularities of elevation and a great deal of water to collect in the low points, explaining the large number of lakes which are found in.
This type of drainage pattern is characterized by irregular branching of tributary streams flowing in many directions and at almost any angles, although usually at less than a right angle. A good example of a radial drainage pattern is provided by the rivers originating from the Amarkantak Mountain. In fact, in such glaciated regions the pre-glacial drainage has been completely destroyed and the new drainage could not have time to develop any significant degree of integration. The number, size, and shape of the drainage basins found in an area vary and the larger the , the more information on the drainage basin is available. This is so because of the irregularities produced by the glacially deposited materials such as kame-and kettle terrain.
The Black Hills is encircled by annular pattern of drainage system. With the march of time a network of streams is developed wherein streams follow the lines of weakness joints and fractures. Tributary streams tend to stretch out in a parallel-like fashion following the slope of the surface. The geometry of a trellis drainage system is similar to that of a common garden trellis used to grow vines. Trellis Drainage: Trellis is a rectangular pattern formed where two sets of structural controls occurs at right angles.
The result is a stream system in which streams consist mainly of straight line segments with right angle bends and tributaries join larger streams at right angles. This is not a very common drainage pattern in India. Such a pattern develops upon rocks of uniform resistance and demonstrates lack of structural control. Thus, a dendritic pattern develops in a terrain which has uniform lithology, and where faulting and jointing are insignificant; e. Annular drainage system — when the streams flow through approximately circular or concentric path along the belt of weak rock system and resemble to a ring like pattern, it is known as annular pattern. The Indus, Satluj, Ganga, Sarju Kali , Arun a tributary of Kosi , Tista and Brahmaputra are some of the important antecedent rivers, originating from beyond the Greater Himalayas. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land.
Since the streams follow the slopes and hence they are basically consequent streams. The stream length in each order increases exponentially with increasing stream order. These results from a partial adaptation to an underground circular structure i. The rocks are weathered and eroded along the interfaces of joints, fractures and faults and thus surface runoff collects in such long and narrow clefts resulting from the weathering and erosion of joints and forms numerous small rills. A Drainage pattern can be defined in the shadow of topographical features from which a stream gets runoff, through flow, and groundwater flow which can be divided by topographic barriers called a watershed.