The factors that prevent this are worthy of note. There are, ultimately, only two ways in which a person's qualifications come about: through inherent capacity or through training. Next, an attempt is made to explain the roughly uniform distribution of prestige as between the major types of positions in every society. Social divisions Finally, Tumin questioned the view that social stratification functions to integrate the social system. But in contrast to religion, which provides integration in terms of sentiments, beliefs, and rituals, it organizes the society in terms of law and authority. Those with greater knowledge and responsibility tend to get the most out of their qualities. Further Tumin argues that differential rewards are not necessary for inducing individuals to qualify for functionally important positions.
In the Capitalist society, the rich become richer and richer and the workers become poorer and poorer. This means, in effect, that the position must be high in the social scalemust command great prestige, high salary, ample leisure, and the like. Tumin and Schwartz have argued that social inequality is not inevitable. In any society, a number of tasks must be accomplished. When he was elected governor of California in 2004, he became powerful as well. Tumin has argued that different societies give importance to different rewards.
Modem medicine, for example, is within the mental capacity of most individuals, but a medical education is so burdensome and expensive that virtually none would undertake it if the position of the M. Practically all positions, no matter how acquired, require some form of skill or capacity for performance. The rewards and their distribution become a part of the social order, and thus give rise to stratification. It is asserted that society seeks a balance, integration, a consensus, and a synthesis of its all parts or sections. Davis and Moore are concerned more with differential positions and less with the mechanism for recruitment.
The reason why religion is necessary is apparently to be found in the fact that human society achieves its unity primarily through the possession by its members of certain ultimate values and ends in common. That assumption made identifying important jobs difficult. The Haves exploit the Have-nots for their profits and use their dominance and power to maintain their domination and rule over the workers. Tumin criticises functionalist theory of Davis and Moore on the ground that the idea of unequal functional importance is unmeasurable and nonevaluative. American Academy of Political and Social Science. Thus, those who perform important functions for the society are given higher rewards and prestige. But as social differentiation becomes highly advanced and yet the institution of inheritance persists, the phenomenon of pure ownership, and reward for pure ownership, emerges.
It must thus concern itself with motivation at two different levels: to instill in the proper individuals the desire to fill certain positions, and, once in these positions, the desire to perform the duties attached to them. Those who believe in stratification believe in common values. It is indeed Utopian view. Some positions require innate talents of such high degree that the persons who fill them are bound to be rare. Second, disregarding the cast element of social stratification. Since the technological level is concerned solely with means, a purely technical position must ultimately be subordinate to other positions that are religious, political, or economic in character.
Sociologists like Raymond Aron and Lipset accept and advocate the view that development of the capitalist society and lead to an end or register a big reduction of class conflict in society. There are, however, two independent clues: a the degree to which a position is functionally unique, there being no other positions that can perform the same function satisfactorily; b the degree to which other positions are dependent on the one in question. Although, as the argument will try to show, both questions are related, it is essential to keep them separate in our thinking. Parsons argues that stratification systems derive from common values. How Variations Are to Be Understood. The social order itself, however, sets limits to the inflation or deflation of the prestige of experts: an over-supply tends to debase the rewards and discourage recruitment or produce revolution, whereas an under-supply tends to increase the rewards or weaken the society in competition with other societies.
Throughout, it will be necessary to keep in mind one thing-namely, that the discussion relates to the system of positions, not to the individuals occupying those positions. In the first place, the amount of technical competence necessary for the performance of religious duties is small. Rights as viewed by the incumbent are usually duties as viewed by other members of the community. Talcott Parsons upholds that stratification is inevitable in human interactions. However, there may be a host of subsidiary rights and perquisites that are not essential to the function of the position and have only an indirect and symbolic connection with its duties, but which still may be of considerable importance in inducing people to seek the positions and fulfil the essential duties. Every functioning social structure is based on a set of accepted values of its members. Any concrete situation is a product of both.
Inequality results because valued social positions are attained not by talent or ability but by force and coercion. Curiously, a concomitant rise in political position is not likely, because it has usually been allied with the religious and stands to gain little by the decline of the latter. Every element has a function in society. The control of the avenues of training may inhere as a sort of property right in certain families or classes, giving them power and prestige in consequence. Such persons get higher rewards and positions. Free movement of ideas generally has an equalitarian effect.
The more vital a position is for the functioning of society, the higher are the rewards attached to that position. Power and rewards Tumin argued that Davis and Moore ignored the influence of power; for example, the difference between wages of farm laborers and coalminers can be interpreted as a result of the relative bargaining power of the two groups. It has, first of all, the things that contribute to sustenance and comfort. . Tumin 's Readings on Social Stratification, 1970 , offers a good selection of the classic contributions to the debate.
Moreover, some positions require different amounts of talent and training for their performances than do the others. It is held that all organisms seek to perpetuate themselves. Finally, the amount of specialization influences the bases of selection. Marxian theory wrongly defines class antagonism as the only relationship between the two economic classes. It rightly asserts that in order to fill more important highly skilled and physically and psychologically demanding positions in a complex division of labour, there has to be a system of unequal rewards. Expert and layman in any social order is fundamental, and cannot be entirely reduced to other terms.