Evaluation of the content, process, quality and impact of any pro-gramme becomes meaningful only if a all the cards are placed on the table, b there is total sharing of information relevant to a programme, and c conclusions at the end of the evaluation are reached only on the basis of a thorough scrutiny of all the relevant documents with total candour and honesty. Just as politics talks about governments, institutions, power, order, and the ideals of justice, governance also deals with the public sector, power structures, equity, and ideals of public administration. Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the importance of a participatory government and article 28 states that everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration can be fully realized. A system of rewards and punishment must be in place to strengthen the processes and institutions of governance. Governance is not just decision-making because decision without implementation is self-defeating.
When there is dearth of legislation for curbing social evils, or even if there is, but the same is ineffectual or unresponsive, and when there is no faithful execution of the law, then justice is not attained. Corporate Governance is a multidimensional issue. The increases in compensation are likewise necessary for the economic well-being, sustained competence and boosted morale of the civil servants. Conflicts, civil wars, inadequacy, no existence of political parties constitute bad governance. The message is: - all workers are human beings first and human beings last; - human life is the finest and best in creation; - human life, once damaged, mutilated or destroyed, cannot be restored to its pristine glory; - this notwithstanding, human life is treated with utter contempt, callousness and insensitivity; - there is no risk sharing and communication with a view to pre-empting disasters in an industrial plant, mining or any other enterprise; - local administration does not take minimal pains to pre-empt an accident or acknowledge its contributory negligence which causes the tragedy; - demand for minimum statutory rights like demand for minimum wages is met with severe reprisal. They also had a holistic national perspective.
Local government has an obligation to report, explain and be answerable for the consequences of decisions it has made on behalf of the community it represents. Sustainability refers to both ensuring social investments carry through and natural resources are maintained for future generations. In bad governance there is no transparency and accountability, this means that the decisions that the government makes are not according to the rules and regulation because government institutions as well as private sector and others are not answerable to the people. Some of these basic needs are: - access to good quality functional literacy and education which is relevant, joyous, attuned to day-to-day life and worthwhile; - primary health care, immunisation and nutrition; - environmental sanitation and hygiene; - potable drinking water; - a roof above the head; - all other basic facilities and amenities and a minimal rest, recreation and leisure. Major components include the rules and regulations for organizational efficiency, defined roles and responsibiities for the board and management, risk management, ethics, internal audit and control. Eine einheitliche und umfassende Theorie zur Beschreibung und Erklärung der Corporate Governance Problematik ist bis zum heutigen Tage nicht nachweisbar.
Here, about 70% of directors of firms on capital market, although they are external, are elected by the controller. Regarding to Binod Atreya speak, in developing countries like Brazil, most of agency conflict on firms are between the firm controller and the minority shareholders. Research in corporate governance is under-developed. This often results in inaccurate reporting or half-hearted and unprofessional reporting by the fudging of figures. Likewise, if decision-making is not transparent, then inevitably there would be no participation, accountability, and decisions are not consensus oriented. This information must be provided in an understandable and accessible format, typically translated through the media. As many observers note, Rwanda has made clear progress in terms of economic growth, public sector management and regulatory reform since the genocide in 1994.
The victim, who is trapped, does not easily see any light at the end of the tunnel. Government expects corporate to govern legally and ethically. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. The key question is: are the institutions of governance effectively guaranteeing the right to health, adequate housing, sufficient food, quality education, fair justice and personal security? Absence of the indicators above is as a result of bad governance. He pursued Licentiate in Philosophy and Master of Arts in Philosophy degrees at the same university, completing them both in 2007.
Governance typically involves well-intentioned people who bring their ideas, experiences, preferences and other human strengths and shortcomings to the policy-making table. In the Philippines, which possesses features of both direct and indirect democracy, indirect participation is done through public consultations or hearings, while direct participation is through elections, initiatives and referendums. Allegedly, it is the key officials in the government who direct the perpetration of this crime. Also, many government departments and agencies pursued a rationalization program to check excessive and redundant staffing. Good governance is transparent - People should be able to follow and understand the decision-making process.
In general, an organization is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions as well as the applicable rules of law. For instance, without active participation among the various actors in governance, there would be a concomitant lack of responsiveness. However the indicators gives as an idea of the governance state. They further justify this focus on good governance partly on the basis of evidence that better governance promotes economic development. Skewed Distribution of Funds—both National and International Skewed distribution is reflected by the following: - inequity in transfer of resources from the Centre to the States and from the States to the districts due to overt and covert political and other extraneous considerations not related to merit or need; - absence of correlation between the magnitude of the problem poverty, unemployment, under employment, illiteracy, malnutrition, lack of access of potable water, sanitation etc. Today, governance includes three sectors: the public sector state actors and institutions , the private sector households and companies , and the civil society non-governmental organizations. Reasonable restrictions can be imposed by the state as the agent of society to ensure that unbridled human freedom does not degenerate into licence.
As far as the government sector is concerned, the current administration, consistent with its drive of curbing corruption, promotes honesty and integrity in public service. Similarly, the Secretaries to government and their Heads of Departments have little or no say in the appointment of district and regional heads of their departments. They bring about a controlled environment so that decisions must always favor them. In spite of being one of the oldest democracies in the region, the Philippines ranked as last among seven indexed Asian countries according to the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index. Its many possible characteristics — from respect for human rights to efficient banking regulations — do not clearly belong together. Where are we today in terms of observance of good governance? The different sectors are considered partners of the government in attaining development goals. This includes appropriate legal frameworks and institutions as well as political, managerial and administrative processes responsible for responding to the rights and needs of the population.
Activities in favour of non-shareholder constituencies such as suppliers, consumers, employees or the Community at large can be perceived as a means of Management to increase its power and personal prestige. Give a concrete example of your answer. Managerial accountability refers to employee accountability based on organization and individual performance. A large number of children in the 3-6 age-group numbering approximately 45 million are either under-nourished or malnourished. Circumvention happens when there is compliance with the letter of the law but violation of its spirit and purpose. This is a loaded question. Donors also purport to design and implement evidence-based policies on governance reform.