Phi Delta Kappan 64 8 , 560-563. Practicing educators can use the dimensions as a guide to school reform whentrying to implement multicultural education. It is more than the recognition of someone else's feelings, but rather a deeper understanding. The canon debate, knowledge construction, and multicultural education. The percentage of the non-Hispanic White population in the United States is projected todecrease during the 2030s and 2040s and comprise 50 percent of the population in 2042,down from 66 percent in 2008 U.
Emphasis on teaching factual content about the histories, heritages, and contributions e. In 2007, he was the Tisch Distinguished Visiting Professor at ,. Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real. Initiated by scholars such as George Washington Williams, Carter G. According to Piaget, there is a relationship between the knower and knowing which results in the development of self-knowledge. Woodson and the Development of Transformative Scholarship.
New York Review of Books, 55 20 ,26—30. Furthermore, multicultural education challenges and rejects racism and other forms of discrimination in schools and society. At this stage, all educational materials, including textbooks, films, and other teaching and learning tools, present information in a Eurocentric, male-centric way. Teaching the ideals of inclusiveness, pluralism, and mutual respect for all peoples and cultures is a humanistic imperative requisite for ethical living and full civic participation in a multicultural democracy and a diverse human world; 2. Mollie Blackburn, Kevin Kumashiro, Cris Mayo, Erica Meiners, NelsonRodriguez, and Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault recommended books for inclusion in theAppendix. Math teachers can incorporate various cultures into examples of word problems; teachers can focus on the experiences of various and not just on those of the dominant white male perspective. Microcultures in the United StatesA nation as culturally diverse as the United States consists of a common overarching culture aswell as a series of microcultures see Figure 1.
Specialists within multicultural education emphasize different components and cultural groups. Thus, adults' modes of thinking and logic are very different from those they possessed as children , 1999. These beliefs are taught in the schools with success storiesand myths about such U. In the early grades, the academic achievement of students of color such as AfricanAmericans, Latinos, and American Indians is close to parity with the achievement of Whitemainstream students Steele, 2003. This is, in part, because each individual belongs to several groups at the same time seeFigure 1.
Core CultureThe United States, like other nation-states, has a shared set of values, ideations, and symbolsthat constitute the core or overarching culture. Teacher education had also fallen short in preparation of pre-service teachers, and staff development for veteran educators, and was focused on other, more urgent matters such as standards and assessments. Students should be instructed in the creation of their own interpretations of the history of the past and history in the making. The leaders of this movement, such as Betty Friedan andGloria Steinem, demanded that political, social, economic, and educational institutions act toeliminate sex discrimination and to provide opportunities for women to actualize their talentsand realize their ambitions. Social and familyhistory and the history of labor and of ordinary people were largely ignored.
RaceRace is a socially determined category that is related to physical characteristics in a complex way Jacobson, 1998; Roediger, 2002. Banks holds honorary doctorates from the New York , the , the , , , and. An empowering school structure requires the creation of qualitatively different relationships among various groups within schools. Plato's curriculum design included liberal arts as well as economic and political arrangements. Members of the school staff examine and change the culture and social structure of the school. Forty-two percent of White voters also voted for Obama, which exceeded the percentage whovoted for John Kerry in 2004 Boynton, 2009.
Individualism as an ideal is extremein the U. Designing for the disabled 2nd ed. Understanding human differences: Multicultural education for a diverse America 3rd ed. The social model of disability: Dichotomy between impairment and disability. These researchers also found an inconsistency between the kind of knowledge mostappealing to women and the kind that was emphasized in most educational institutions. Individuals learn the values, symbols, and other components of their culture from their socialgroup. Most of the women interviewed in the Belenky et al.
Sources and Resources Banks, J. Then they could analyze their own values and beliefs, apply their new knowledge, identify alternative courses of action and decide what, if any, actions they will take to address these issues in their school, workplace, or community. Stage 5: Multicultural, Social Action, and Awareness In addition to the changes made in the Structural Reform stage, important social issues, including racism, sexism, and economic injustice, are addressed explicitly as part of the curriculum. Banks is known for his groundbreaking work in social studies education and especially in the field of multicultural education. Multicultural education holds the power to transform, it provides hope at a time when the future is unclear, and, perhaps most importantly, it provides an opportunity for us to imagine the world as a fair, equitable, and just place in which to live and work. Some groups, she contents, fail to see that we are now what we have always been.